Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system. It is a multidisciplinary branch of biology, that combines physiology, anatomy, molecular biology, developmental biology, cytology, mathematical modeling and psychology to understand the fundamental and emergent properties of neurons and neural circuits. The understanding of the biological basis of learning, memory, behavior, perception and consciousness has been described by Eric Kandel as the “ultimate challenge” of the biological sciences.
The scope of neuroscience has broadened over time to include different approaches used to study the nervous system at the different scales and the techniques used by neuroscientistshave expanded enormously, from molecular and cellular studies of individual neurons to imaging of sensory and motor tasks in the brain. Neuroscience has also given rise to such other disciplines as neuroeducation, neuroethics, and neurolaw.
As a result of the increasing number of scientists who study the nervous system, several prominent neuroscience organizations have been formed to provide a forum to all neuroscientists and educators. For example, the International Brain Research Organization was founded in 1960, the International Society for Neurochemistry in 1963, the European Brain and Behaviour Society in 1968, and the Society for Neuroscience in 1969.